Copper–silver ionisation (Continued)

Copper–silver ionisation (Continued)

By Environmental Protection Agency, document EPA 810-R-16-001

There is an understanding of how bacterial gene systems can confer resistance to copper and silver (Nies, 1999). Some of these gene systems are found in legionella (Bondarczuk and Piotrowska-Seget, 2013).

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Copper–silver ionisation

Copper–silver ionisation

By the Environmental Protection Agency, document EPA 810-R-16-001

Commercially available CSI systems typically consist of flow cells that contain metal bars or anodes (containing copper and silver metals) surrounding a central chamber through which piped water flows. A direct electric current is passed between these anodes, releasing the copper and silver ions into the water stream. The amount of ions released depends on the composition of the anode and is controlled by the electrical current applied to the bars and the water flow rate.

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Potential water quality issues

Potential water quality issues

In 2016, the US Environmental Protection Agency published Technologies for legionella control in premise plumbing systems: scientific literature review. We extract the sections that are relevant for plumbers in relation to the prevention of legionella.

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Water reuse tactic

Water reuse tactic

By the Department of Water and Sanitation

South Africa has limited freshwater resources and has been defined as ‘water stressed’ by international standards.

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