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Black water in Singapore

We take a look at the cause of the appearance of black sediments from the water supply in western parts of Singapore and the processes involved in removing them

*Extracted from the World Health Organisation’s Water Safety in Distribution Systems.

From 1982 to 1983, there were numerous complaints by customers from the western parts of Singapore (Choa Chu Kang water supply zone) regarding black sediments found in their water.

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Water safety and risk assessment

By: World Health Organisation (WHO)

We take a look at water safety in distribution systems, the associated risks and how to manage them

The most effective means of consistently ensuring the safety of drinking-water supplies is through the use of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach incorporated in a water supply system (WSP) that applies to all steps of a water supply, including the distribution system.

Normal practice is to develop an integrated WSP applying to all components, from catchment through treatment and distribution. However, in this article, we focus on application to distribution systems only.

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Water safety in distribution systems

By: World Health Organisation

We take a look at water safety in distribution systems and how the integrity of well-managed distribution systems can protect drinking-water from contamination

The integrity of well managed distribution systems is one of the most important barriers that protect drinking-water from contamination. However, management of distribution systems often receives too little attention. Distribution systems can incorrectly be viewed as passive systems with the only requirement being to transport drinking-water from the outlets of treatment plants to consumers.

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Education needed to improve sanitation

By: Dr. Sudarshan Iyengar, Vice-Chancellor, Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad

Community health, hygiene, and sanitation have not been a prominent part of the cultural ethos in India over the last few centuries. It is indeed ironic that a country, which, during ancient times, demonstrated very high standards of planned city sanitation, fell into gross ignorance and disrepute with regard to sanitation. Interest in sanitation and hygiene was revived only after the British took hold of the country’s governance after 1860. Demographic records of India suggest that until 1921, Indian population was fluctuating in numbers. Plague, Influenza, and other infectious diseases were rampant until then. Rise in population with the death rate falling faster than the birth rate began only after 1921. Fall in death rate was also because of wonder drugs such as Penicillin, which were invented and introduced in India through government medical care set up. Water-borne diseases continued to be very high and people were largely ignorant about the water source contamination and failed to realise the need for personal hygiene and sanitation. Curative medicine was more popular and powerful. Community health and social and preventive medicine including epidemiology received little attention in medical education. Therefore, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Child Mortality Rate (CMR), and Maternal Mortality Rates (MMR) were indeed high, even after independence.

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